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In Sweden, national-level criteria were Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum proposed by the World Wide Fund for Nature-Sweden together with the Swedish Association of Nature Conservation (SNF).

Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum far as the development of national systems is concerned, Indonesia is probably one of the most advanced countries.

A decision has been taken to establish a national timber ecolabelling institute and substantial work has been carried out to develop the criteria for assessment and tracking procedures.

Such schemes have also been discussed in other countries (e. In Canada, an industry-supported team involving the provincial governments is moving strongly on Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum a certification system, intended to serve as a model on which a proposed ISO system could be built.

In the Nordic countries, discussions are under way at various levels both within and among countries. In Norway, the private forestry sector, government and NGOs are discussing a form of certification.

Sweden is developing a system which may be linked to the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), but discussion is still ongoing. The private sector in Sweden sees certification as a market tool and not a Bravelle (Urofollitropin Injection)- FDA for government regulation.

In Switzerland, a system is being developed Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum the private forestry sector, environmentalists and other interested groups.

The issue is also under review by the European Union which has in the past focused mostly on Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum to member countries of the African Timber Organization (ATO). As for market pressures, the most visible phenomenon has been the WWF Target 1995 Group in the United Kingdom which was Nelarabine (Arranon)- FDA up to phase out trade in uncertified timber by associates of the group by 1995.

This target date has proved to be impractical and now the objective has been redefined to increase the share of certified timber continuously in total purchases. There were approximately 50 associates in the WWF Target 1995 scheme in May 1995, including do-it-yourself supply stores, importers and merchants.

As has been discussed above, much effort at both the national and the international levels is currently being invested to determine the principles, criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management. However, this work continues to be fragmented, overlapping and even conflicting at times. Certification suffers from an important weakness: it is not always clear who is providing the information or what standards are being used to assess the claim.

For example, a 1991 WWF study of "sustainability" claims applied Chlordiazepoxide Amitriptyline DS Tablets (Limbitrol)- Multum wood products by over 600 companies operating in the United Kingdom revealed that only three were able and willing to substantiate their environmental marketing claims (Read, 1991).

As early as 1990, calls echoed from various interest groups for Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum establishment of an accreditor for certifying organizations to ensure the creditability of market claims. Currently, the certification picture is clouded by the development of many competing and even conflicting systems. There is a real risk that timber suppliers may be called on to acquire more than one certificate for the same product in order to satisfy different groups of customers, each with its own allegiance to a given certification scheme.

Beyond these practical challenges, there is a larger philosophical question concerning the potential for certification schemes actually to do what they set out to do, i. Any viable timber certification scheme will need to be seen to be credible, objective with measurable criteria, reliable and independent and, Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum important, covering all types of timber.

Participation must be voluntary, non-discriminatory in nature and adaptable to local conditions, cost effective, practical and transparent. So far, timber certification has not been applied on a wide enough basis to prove its practicality in application, roche in germany effect on the market or its contribution Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum good stewardship of the forest.

The issue remains highly political in nature and will no doubt continue to be a subject of active international and intergovernmental debate for some time before a solution is found. ISO 14000: what is it. What does it mean to the forest products industry. The tropical timber triangle - a production-related agreement on tropical timber. Copenhagen, Department of Economics and Natural Resources, Royal Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum and Agricultural University.

Certification schemes for all timber and timber products. Paper presented at the 75th Anniversary Annual Meeting of the Woodlands Section, Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Certification accreditation: the need for credible claims. Is there a case for tropical timber certification.

Working Paper, Washington, DC, World Bank. Sustainable forestry: towards international certification. Ottawa, Canadian Standards Association. Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum report on the use of Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum labels worldwide.

Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum, DC, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency. Logging technologies for tropical forests - for or against. Kista, Sweden, Forest Operations Institute. An assessment of claims innocuous in "sustainability" applied to tropical wood products and timber retailed Leukeran (Chlorambucil)- Multum the United Kingdom, July 1990-January 1991.

London, World Wide Fund for Nature. Consumer perceptions of forest sustainability and willingness to pay: Folic Acid (Folic Acid)- FDA of a national survey.

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