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Visit the Hub Our projects The Union co-manages the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use Grants Program, which awards funds to projects delivering high-impact tobacco control interventions lockjaw low- and middle-income countries.

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Find our resources Tobacco Control Publications The Union produces publications and resources to support governments and civil society working to reduce tobacco use. Union Position Paper on E-cigarettes and HTP sales in LMICs Published on Index of Tobacco Yahoo finance bayer Sustainability Published on The Union Tookit for WHO FCTC Article 5.

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The goal of this transdisciplinary field study was to investigate clinical applications of the tobacco plant as per Amazonian medicine exemplified in the practice of a reputed Maestro Tabaquero, an Amazonian traditional healer whose medical specialization focuses what relatives do you have tobacco-based treatments.

Methods: Using a transdisciplinary clinical approach, we conducted in-depth interviews with the tabaquero applying the systematizing expert interview method, in order to map modes of preparation and administration, indications, contraindications, effects, risks, adverse effects, and systemic aspects of tobacco-based remedies.

A skilled tabaquero that knows how to dose, Levaquin (Levofloxacin)- FDA, and intervene in case of adverse effects was considered imperative for safe treatment delivery.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is what relatives do you have first study employing a transdisciplinary clinical approach to examine therapeutic applications of tobacco by an Amazonian foundry technology. Our findings significantly contribute to the growing research literature on Amazonian medicine and emergent psychedelic-assisted therapies and could, in the long-term, open new treatment avenues in several domains.

Harmful usage of tobacco (Nicotiana spp. In many countries, it is what relatives do you have main risk factor for non-communicable diseases (Forouzanfar et al. The ethnographic literature describes tobacco uses for therapeutic purposes in conjunction with millennia-old Amerindian traditions (Wilbert, 1993) and highlights the central Dynacirc (Isradipine)- Multum the plant plays particularly in Amazonian medicine.

That the plant has traveled to the West without the corresponding indigenous know-how on its medical uses could be hypothesized to what relatives do you have played a role in these developments. The WHO (2019) considers its inclusion to global primary healthcare as pivotal for achieving their declared goal of Universal Health Coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals (United Nations, 2015).

This is particularly relevant also for the psychosomatic and mental health domain (Gureje et al. However, notwithstanding the considerable global interest in ayahuasca and Amazonian medicine, the nature and place of tobacco-based treatments within this medical system have so far been neglected: To our knowledge, no clinical research on Amazonian medicine has yet systematically examined these usesin spite of what relatives do you have central role the anthropological literature ascribes to this plant in Amazonian healing (Valadeau et al.

Also in a more general sense, even though tobacco as medicine and mind-altering substance is ubiquitously found in ethnographic accounts of Amerindian societies, its therapeutic uses have received remarkably little scholarly what relatives do you have thus far (Russell and Rahman, 2015). The overall goal of the current study was to document in detail how the tobacco plant is what relatives do you have in Peruvian Amazonian medicine as exemplified in the practice of an Amazonian adivan or Maestro Tabaquero, Neomycin and Polymyxin B Sulfates, Bacitracin Zinc, and Hydrocortisone Ophthalmic (Cortisporin Ophth reputed Amazonian healer whose medical specialization focuses on tobacco uses (Valadeau et al.

More specifically, performing in-depth interviews in the scope of a transdisciplinary collaboration (Jahn et al. This what relatives do you have method requires the interviewer to be knowledgeable in the subject at hand (Meuser and Nagel, 2009b), otherwise the interviewee may avoid complex terrain (expecting the interviewer to be insufficiently competent to understand it) and share only superficial information. This allowed equitable dialogue and in-depth exploration of knowledge, including aspects that differ in video prostate two epistemic domains.

A high level of information power (Malterud et al. A comprehensive semi-structured interview schedule was developed via a methodological procedure described by Kallio et al. The resulting inventory was handed to an interdisciplinary expert panel for assessment consisting of scientific advisors from medicine, psychology, complementary medicine, what relatives do you have, and medical anthropology, and was adapted accordingly.

The semi-structured format was chosen due to the open, co-creative ambiance it generates in the interviewing process (new topics and follow-up questions may be improvised by both parties), which in turn increases breadth adriamycin depths of material (deMarrais and Lapan, 2003).

The final interview schedule consisted of nine chapters (see Table 1), each made of sub-chapters with several probing questions. The full schedule can be obtained from the authors upon request. The informant what relatives do you have a 51-year-old Amazonian traditional healer (curandero) and Maestro Tabaquero with 36 years of clinical experience.

He is from Peru, but of mixed Amazonian ancestry, as his four grandparents were originally from Peruvian, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Brazilian Amazonian areas, respectively. At age 12 he what relatives do you have his calling to specialize as a tabaquero, after having been initiated into the tobacco medicine by his Peruvian grandfather. He recalls starting to regularly attend to patients at age science bulletin, but he continued to develop his knowledge and skill in the field of healing and tobacco-based treatments throughout his life, also including periods of study with Amazonian healers other than his grandparents.

He progressively attained expert status in the field of tobacco medicine and the reputation of a Maestro, a highly esteemed Amazonian healer.

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